I’m consolidating the questions that have been submitted so far for the last exam on renal pathophysiology. Feel free to comment on any of these questions, ask for clarifications, or add new ones. I’ll consider any well-stated, quality questions submitted before noon Saturday.
What is the physiological reason the kidneys play a crucial a role in controlling blood pressure. Is it….
A. If your blood pressure is too high it is not good for your heart
B. The angiotensinogen renin system is the best way <<- I’ve got to think of an alternate answer here
C. The loop of henley can’t withstand the pressure
D. sufficient pressure is required to filter material from blood through the nephron
Which lab test is most commenly used as a screening measure of renal function?
A) BUN (Blood Urea Nitrogen)
C)Serum Creatine << Corrected to Serum Creatinine
D) Sodium Urine output
[Both BUN and Serum Creatinine are useful, but BUN is more likely to fluctuate following meal]
A patient recently had a computed tomography (CT) and was diagnosed with Polycystic Kidney Disease. What had the doctor seen that indicated that diagnoses?
A)Renal calculi in the kidneys
B)Fluid-filled sacs in the tubular structures of the kidney
D)A rapid decline in kidney function
[good question, I like this one]
The clinical manifestations of glomerular disorders generally fall into one of five categories.
– acute nephritic syndrome
– rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis
– nephrotic syndrome
– asymptomatic hematuria or proteniura
– Chronic glomerulonephritis
There are also several disease that cause secondary glomerular kidney disease such as systemic lupus, diabetes, and hypertension.
1.) Acute nephritic syndrome evokes an inflammatory response in the glomeruli and results in extracellular fluid accumulation ad edema because of a decreased GFR. What clinical manifestations would a nurse observe?
A. bradycardia, polyuria, dehydration
B. Hematuria, oliguria, hypertension
C. Decreased sensation in the lower extremities
D. None, this typer of Glomerular disease goes unnoticed by the patient and the provider.
2.) The glomerular membrane acts as a size-specific barrier through which filtrate from the blood must pass. One type of glomerular disease that affects this function is know as nephrotic syndrome. What are some clinical manifestations a nurse would observe?
A.) hematuria, oliguria, hypertension
B.) Hyperalbuminemia, dehydration
C.) Proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia, generalized edema
D.) None, thype of glomerular disease goes unnoticed by the patient and the provider.
3.) Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis is a syndrome characterized by signs of sever glomerular injury, is rapidly progressive and does not have a specific cause. What is one disease associated with this type of glomerular disease?
A.) Staphycocci infection
C.) Goodpasture syndrome
D.) kidney transplant
[although rare, Goodpasture syndrome is interesting because of its rapid progression and clearly diagnosable immunohistochemistry]
4.) Asymptomatic glomerular disorders are not generally recognized or brought up to healthcare providers, and many times remain undiagnosed. What are two clinical signs associated with asymptomatic glomerular disorders that may be seen in a patient even though they have no other complaints?
A.) Hemituria and proteinuria
B.) Itchy skin and watery eyes
C.) Generalized edema and toenail fungus
D.) Constipation and anxiety
[why is it that the patient is not seeing the hematuria?]
5.) many immunologic, metabolic and hereditary diseases are associated with glomerular injury. With many of these diseases glomerular injury is a secondary manifestation. What is an example of this type of disease.
A.) Diabetes mellitus
D.) Both A and B
1.Painful or difficult urination is called?
2.A condition in which very high levels of protein are lost in the urine and abnormally LOW LEVELS OF PROTEINS are present in the blood
[straight from my own extra credit question – how can I not like it?]
3.Very low urine production
[I like this one too]
4.In renal _____, the kidneys do not develop to normal size.