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Tag Archives: anatomy

Case Study

IndianJRadiolImaging_2013_23_1_81_113621_u3A 25 yo man presents at the ER with abrupt, intense pain in the right flank and ipsilateral lower abdomen. In addition to abdominal pains, he also feels  pain in the right testicle and has had to urinate frequently and always with pain. Imaging was done to aid in assessment.

Given this information, what diagnosis might you suggest? Explain the symptoms and what is revealed by the imaging. What treatment do you suggest?

 
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Posted by on April 28, 2015 in Uncategorized

 

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Invitation to Submit Questions for Respiratory Unit

As I’ve been doing lately, I wanted to offer the opportunity to my students (and anyone else who would like to) to submit questions for the Respiratory Unit Exam of my Pathophysiology class. Topics covered on this exam will focus primarily on the outline below. However, I wish to remind students that they are responsible for all the material covered in chapters 21-23 of Porth’s Essentials of Pathophysiology.

Airways preserved in the right lung, airways and pulmonary circulation in the left lung.

Airways preserved in the right lung, airways and pulmonary circulation in the left lung.

To submit questions, please provide a fully worked out multiple choice question in the comments section below. Also indicate the correct answer.

Respiratory Pathophysiology Outline (Please, forgive the formatting below, I’m having trouble fixing this appropriately in the browser):

  1. Control of Respiratory Function
    1. Conducting Airways
      1. Nasopharynx
      2. Larynx
  • Trachea
  1. Bronchial Tree (Primary -> Terminal)
  1. Respiratory Tissue (Acini)
    1. Respiratory Bronchiole
    2. Alveoli
      1. Type I, Type II Alveolar Cells and Alveolar macrophages
    3. Pulmonary (And Bronchial) Circulation
    4. Pleura
    5. Ventilation and the Mechanics of Breathing
      1. Chest Cage and Respiratory Muscles
      2. Lung Compliance
    6. Lung Volumes and Capacities
      1. Total Lung Capacity
      2. Tidal Volume
  • Etc.
  1. Diffusion according to Fick’s Law
  2. Oxygen Delivery
    1. Oxygen / Globin Dissociation Curves
  3. Infections
    1. The Common Cold
      1. Caused by a number of different viruses
      2. A number of different serotypes
    2. Influenza
      1. One of the most deadly uncontrolled human infections
      2. Three types of influenza (A,B, and C – A is most diverse)
        1. Influenza A
          1. Distinguished by serotypes based on H&N genes
  • Three types of infections
    1. Uncomplicated upper respiratory disease
    2. Viral Pneumonia
    3. Viral Pneumonia + Bacterial Pneumonia
  1. Pneumonia
    1. Typical*
      1. Bacterial ( pneumoniae)
    2. Atypical*
      1. Viral (Influenza, Chickenpox), Fungal, protozoan
  • Legionnaire’s Disease
    1. (I find that pneumonia caused by Legionella is placed as either typical or atypical depending on the source)
  1. Fungal Infections
  2. Tuberculosis
    1. Diagnosis
    2. Treatment
  3. Congenital and Acquired Obstructive Disorders
    1. CF
    2. Asthma
    3. COPD
    4. Pulmonary Hypertension – causes and outcomes

*The distinction between Typical and Atypical pneumonia appears to be more historic than clinically valuable. For this reason, on our exam we will continue to call S. pneumoniae the most common form of ‘Typical’ pneumonia, but otherwise not use these terms.

 
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Posted by on March 4, 2015 in Uncategorized

 

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The Hardest Working Organ of the Body

Like the James Brown of the Body

As I started grading the first Pathophysiology Exam on Cardiovascular Function in Health and Disease, the first material I saw was in answer to my questions about the flow of blood through the heart and to the rest of the body. I can’t say that I was happy with the results, but I want to emphasize that this is very basic material that we discussed and outlined in our class, but that I had also assumed was covered in Anatomy and Physiology last semester. After two passes through this material, it should be easily accessible in every student’s mind.

As a reminder of these functions and the flow of blood, here is Khan Academy’s summary of this material:

I believe that that is important foundational material, and you may have a pop quiz on it at any time.

stay on the scene

 
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Posted by on February 21, 2015 in Uncategorized

 

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