In class this week we are discussing genes alleles homologous genes between species and pseudogenes. In order to organize my thoughts (to the extent that I can), I sketched out this diagram to model the flow of information from DNA into proteins and tie this together with the idea that DNA undergoes mutations from time to time and that these mutations are the source of new alleles in the population.
1.Recall the central dogma
DNA –> RNA –> Protein
Information flows from the DNA out of the nucleus giving rise to proteins that make up the body and do its work. For EVERY gene, you have two alleles, one from mom, one from dad. We tend to only talk about the ones that give us distinct traits that we can see from the outside, but every gene these.
2. Mutations are altered forms leading to altered function
All genes are subject to mutations. Mutations may change the protein that the gene encodes or not. In cases when it does change the protein, we may see a change in function (Form dictates Function). Once we have two different versions of a gene that remain for any period of time, we call these forms alleles of the gene.
3. Interaction of Alleles
Mutations result in these new alleles that may function differently. This may manifest in a form of dominance. If one allele codes for a protein and a second suffered a mutation such that no protein is made, we may look for the protein and say that the form that makes the protein is dominant because one copy should be sufficient to get it made.
4. How can Alleles become Pseudogenes?
Sometimes, genes mutate into a nonfunctional allele that has no impact on the organism (e.g. vitamin C synthesis is not required when the animal eats sufficient vitamin C) in this case, there will be no selective pressure against the non-functional allele resulting in more mutations occurring without consequence. Over time, these alleles can be made completely non-functional. Pseudogenes are the remnants of these old genes that we can find in the DNA, but that are no longer functional due to an accumulation of mutations. (Only if both copies are mutated and there is no functional copy of the gene in the population do we can this a pseudogene).
5. Speciation and Relationships
As time passes, and speciation occurs, we can still see similarities between the genes of the descendent species, whether these are functional, or sometimes even when they are non-functional. My analyzing the similarities between shared genes, it is possible to infer some relationships between species and even quantitate these relationships in a way that can be used to construct a phylogenetic tree.